Comprehensive List of Countries and Capitals: A Reliable Resource for Geographic Information (2023)


In today's dynamic world, staying updated on accurate geographic information is crucial. The shifting geopolitical landscape necessitates a reliable source for the most current and precise data on countries and their capitals. Our publication aims to provide a comprehensive and authoritative list of countries and capitals, surpassing other available resources. This updated edition addresses the evolving nature of toponymy, offering users clarity and precision in distinguishing between traditional French names and emerging, internationally recognized designations.

Importance of Accurate Geographic Information

In an era marked by geopolitical transformations and increased international interactions, having access to up-to-date and accurate geographic information is paramount. Our list goes beyond traditional resources, incorporating the latest changes in the geopolitical sphere. Whether it's the dissolution of the U.S.S.R., conflicts in the Balkans and Asia, or the emergence of new names on the international stage, our publication captures the intricacies of evolving toponymy.

Methodology and Sources

Our meticulous compilation draws on a variety of reputable sources, including dictionaries, atlases, and maps. Additionally, we reference the work of esteemed organizations such as the United Nations Expert Group on Geographic Names (GENUNG), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the French Association for Standardization (AFNOR). These entities have published multilingual lists of country names, forming the foundation of our study.

Structure of the List

Our list is presented in two tables: "NOM FRANÇAIS" and "NOM LOCAL." The former includes the French short and long forms of country names, while the latter presents names in the official languages of each country. The tables are interconnected through ISO codes and the French short form, providing a user-friendly and comprehensive reference.

ISO Codes and Short Forms

The ISO codes (alpha-2) assigned to each country offer a standardized identification system globally recognized for precision. The "Forme courte" (short form) column provides the commonly used names in French, ensuring compatibility with government documents, education materials, and communication platforms.

Long Forms and Capital Cities

The "Forme longue" (long form) column captures the names systematically used in significant state documents, such as constitutions and treaties. The "Capitale" column details the current French names of capital cities, encompassing both traditional French names and those borrowed from other languages.

NOM LOCAL: Reflecting Linguistic Diversity

The second table, "NOM LOCAL," delves into the linguistic diversity of each country. It includes the French names of official languages, ISO codes, short forms, long forms, and capital names in local languages. This section ensures a nuanced understanding of each country's linguistic landscape.


Our updated and meticulously curated list stands as a reliable reference for anyone seeking accurate and current geographic information. We invite users to provide feedback for future improvements, emphasizing our commitment to delivering a precise and valuable resource for understanding the ever-changing world of toponymy.

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